The people of the ancient
Egypt, as well as the ones of the ancient Greece and Rome
offered to the modern historians numerous evidences and
information about their medical knowledge and about the
attitude they had regarding medicine.
The sources of evidences are
many papyruses that were discovered in the archaeological
sites. The legends, the myths, the common sense and the
human anatomy`s strong knowledge were the base of the
Homer wrote in his ‘Odyssey’
that the Egyptians are skilled at medicine more than any
other people. A papyrus from 1825 BC describes the diagnose
methods of the pregnancy, the discovery of the baby` s sex
and the treatment of some gynecological diseases.
In the papyrus called ‘Edwin Smith’
(from 1600 BC) we found amazing information about the
surgery practiced by the Egyptian medicines.
Yes, that is
right: surgery! Here are described 48 cases in which the
interventions were made to head, shoulders, neck and chest.
The researchers say that the often accidents happened during
the work at pyramids made the experience of the doctors to
increase. In another papyrus called ‘Ebers’ (from 3000 BC)
we find references about internal diseases, of the eyes,
skin` s and also gynecological references, being presented
some surgery cases also.
Are described 400 medicines
recommended in 877 prescriptions.
Despite the limitation of
the knowledge regarding the causes of the diseases, the
ancient Egyptians had an advanced knowledge of the human
anatomy and psychology.
With no doubts, the
way they embalmed the death and especially how they
used to empty the cranium for mummification implied
a good knowledge of the head and brain` s anatomy.
They knew that in brain is it the command of the
entire organism. In ‘Ebers’ are described the
correct position of the heart, as well as some of
its anomalies. They knew the heart pulses the blood
in the blood vessels to all the organs. From these
papyruses with medical character results that the
medics of the ancient Egypt used the method that is
also used today during the consultation of an ill
man: the anamnesis.
To diagnose a disease they searched
the blood, the urine and the sputa. The first cataract
intervention was made in Alexandria by Ptolemeu. Numerous
other papyrus talk about the teeth` s diseases: abscesses,
dental decay, and the replacement of the teeth. The fact is
also proved by the marks of the intervention on a mummy` s
mandible, dating since 2500 BC.
The sciences about chemistry
of the ancient Egyptians were so vast that the old Egypt` s
name of Kemet defines this thing. The ancient Egypt` s
medics were treating the anaemia and knowing the benefic
properties of the onion using it as antibiotic. The ones
with mental disease were sent in the ‘temples of sleep’ and
their dreams were interpreted in a religious way. The modern
medicine has its origins in Egypt. This is the conclusion of
some recent researchers based on the study of some documents
dating from 3500 years ago.