The Egypt empire was built in the
North Africa`s East, along the Nile river, where today is
the modern Egypt.
The unification of the Lower Egypt with
the Upper Egypt, around 3150 BC, under Egypt` s first
pharaoh represents the beginning of the Egyptian
civilization which lasts for more than three millennia.
In the Egypt`s history were stable
periods called kingdoms and periods characterized by
instability called intermediate periods.
The last kingdom is
known as the New Kingdom and after it the ancient Egypt`s
civilization knew a decline period when Egypt had to conquer
with some foreign powers.
In 31 BC the pharaohs rule ended and
Egypt was conquered by the Roman Empire and transformed in a
province. The development of the Egyptian social and
cultural life was advantaged by the controlled irrigations
of the Nile Valley, which was very fertile and produced
crops in surplus. Egypt of those times had a writing system,
resources to spare, a military that won the fights with the
foreign enemies providing Egypt` s dominance, the country
had trades with the neighbors and agricultural projects.
The administrators, the religious
leaders and the elite scribes made the bureaucracy which
organized the country's activities, being controlled by a
divine pharaoh who assured the Egyptians unity and
cooperation through a religious beliefs system.
Among the numerous achievements of the ancient Egypt are the
techniques of agricultural production and of construction
which allowed the Egyptians to build the temples, the
pyramids, the obelisks and the monuments. Other important
achievements are the mathematics system, the quarrying
techniques, the glass and faience technology, the medicine
system, the earliest treaty of peace as well as forms of
literature. The Egyptian architecture and art are parts of
the ancient Egypt`s legacy as well as the ruins; the
excavations showed that the ancient Egyptians had a great
appreciation for their history and legacy.
The absolute monarch of the country was the pharaoh who
controlled the land and the country`s resources. The
government's head and the supreme commander of military was
the king who managed the affairs with the help of a
bureaucracy made from officials.
The vizier was the second
in command and had the role of the king` s representative,
coordinating the administration the legal system, the land`
s surveys, the archives and the building projects.
The temples were places for worship but also for storing and
collecting the wealth of the nation in treasuries and in a
granaries system administered by overseers; they
redistributed goods and grain. In that way, the temples were
the economy` s backbone.The
Egypt's economy was controlled in a strict way and
centrally organized. The coinage was used by Egyptians
starting with the late period and since then the people of
Egypt used a kind of a system of money-barter. The system
was made from grain sacks and a weight of 91 grams of silver
and copper called deben and which formed a common