As is normal the supreme law in Egypt
is the constitution of this country which dates from 1971,
when it was adopted by a public referendum on September 11.
There are three amendments brought to the Egypt’s
constitution: in 1980, in 2005 and in 2007. The constitution
prescribe the party plurality, the judiciary system` s
independence and the democratic representative system's
1923 is the year of the first form of a national
constitution, a modern and codified form. This fact makes
from Egypt a country with one of the earliest legislative
and administrative codes in the entire history.
The amendments that were brought to the constitution in 2007
viewed 34 articles and were brought by the Egypt` s national
democratic party which intensions was to move the economic
and the politic tendencies of Egypt from socialism to
The Egyptian political system`s main principals are
declared in the constitution and are: the freedom of Egypt,
the peace through freedom, the national development and the
According to the constitution, Egypt is a democratic state,
the country sovereignty derives from the people and a Arab
world` s part.
The Egyptian political system established by constitution is
the party plurality, the political system being a
semi-presidential one. The judiciary power, the parliament
power and the executive power are separated, the executive
authority`s actions being controlled by the parliament
through several mechanisms.
Since the political system is one of the parties plurality
in Egypt the foundation of parties is allowed with the
condition that the parties are not made on discriminatory
bases such as sex, religion or race.
The defining of the citizens` s principal freedoms and
rights which have to be assured by the state of Egypt.
According to the Egyptian all the citizens of this country
are equal and free, among the freedoms being the one of
expression, the one regarding the religious orientation, the
freedom of press, the freedom of the private life` s
The executive power is represented by the president of
Egypt, the local administration, the prime minister and by
the ministers cabinet.
The prime minister can be dismissed by the president, the
most powerful power in state, without the approval of the
The president can also remove the ministers` cabinet but
only after he consulted the prime minister.
The parliament can be dissolved by the president of Egypt
but only for exceptional reasons and after that he has to
organize new election in no more than 60 days.
The judiciary power is independent of the other powers and
has the mission to supervise the activities of the
legislative and executive branches.
The legislative power of Egypt is represented by the
parliament which is made from the upper house – the Shura
council and the lower house – the People’s Assembly.
The People Assembly has the right to dismiss the president
if is guilty of criminal facts or of grand treason.
Before this constitution Egypt had another 8 constitutions.